A pneumonia is a disease of the lung tissue. Etymologically it is a disease (-pathy) of the lungs (pneumo-) or pneumopathique the general sense. Commonly, the term is often used to designate a lung infection.

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused mostly by an infection or, rarely, by an irritant chemical or physical. This term refers to lung infections caused by bacteria, viruses, germs atypical, fungal or other parasites.

Pneumonia can reach people of all ages, but the greatest risk for young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. To treat pneumonia, are often used antimicrobial agents.

The causes are many and varied, and various sources can add their effects:

* Viral or bacterial infection, the most common (80 to 90%). The germs found most often are, by decreasing order, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and the virus Influenzae A.
* The atypical pneumonia (10 to 20%): Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila and Chlamydiae pneumoniae
* In exceptional cases, pneumonia breeders of birds, post radiation, lipid, parasitic, immunological, TB ...
* Air pollution, especially by vehicles, is also a risk factor and worsening pneumonia. A significant excess of death by pneumonia was found in the United Kingdom, among the most vulnerable British emissions of exhaust systems (measured by crossing mortality data from pollution and other causes of death observed and expected in 352 local English from 1996 to 2004); pneumonia, but also heart disease and cancers of the stomach may have been statistically correlated to certain emissions, smoking and / or a higher consumption of alcohol. The dead by pneumonia were most corrélables strongly to the exhaust fumes of vehicles (with a mortality by other lung diseases and rheumatic cardites). According to this study, the annual mortality rate related to pollution in these 352 communities is comparable to that caused by the smog of London, 1952 ( "great London Smog"), although the events of pollution are more today also visible. Nanoparticles exhausts may be at issue today, while soot were probably in the years 1950 and since the advent of coal in the 19th century.


The diagnosis is based on:

* Clinic
* Radiography of the chest, face and profile
* The blood test, looking for signs of sepsis
* Examining cytobactériologique spitting (ECBC) possibly in some cases

It gives a high fever, extreme fatigue and that for at least seven days.
The disease is characterized by the accumulation of pus and mucus in the lungs. The latter can no longer ensure optimal oxygenation of the blood. This lack of oxygenation of the blood can cause a malfunction or even cell death.

A substantive treatment by antibiotics is necessary, except in cases of viral infection. Regarding side effects, a diet (for some people perhaps), oxygen and sedatives (cough) may be prescribed, physiotherapy sessions to help "sick" to breathe easier. The seating position is better suited: indeed, lying, it is hard s'oxygéner.


* Septic shock and severe sepsis
* Disease thrombo-embolism
* Pleurésie
* Syndrome acute respiratory distress
* Pneumothorax (rare).

Other pneumonia

* Syndrome acute respiratory distress
* Pneumocystose
* Bronchiolitis
* Sarcoidosis
* Lupus Erythematosus disseminated
* SARS, or atypical pneumonia

Read also Chronic Bronchitis