is a specific and enduring disorder affecting the identification of written words. There are dyslexies acquired, also called alexies (they are the result of injuries known to the nervous system), and developmental dyslexies observed in children. A malfunctioning hearing is one of the first avenues to explore. Dyslexia causes trouble of writing: it speaks of agraphie in dyslexies acquired, or dysgraphie and dysorthographie in developmental dyslexia.
The notion of dyslexia of the child is still in debate. According to some specialists, particularly in France, it is still an excessive medicalization of educational issues and psycho-social. In North America and the Scandinavian countries, on the contrary, it is deemed constitutional, with a strong genetic component, socio-educational performing only potentially aggravating conditions. Nevertheless, there is a consensus to say that dyslexia does not encompass all of reading disorders. In total, an estimated one in ten adults is or was dyslexic.
The identification of dyslexic children based since the 1970 on a negative definition. It is estimated that dyslexia is what can not be explained by the following cases:
* An irregular schooling;
* Sensory disabilities or neurological;
* Disabilities in reading (the expected reading level is less than or equal to the intellectual level);
* A socio-educational deficient;
* A psychological disorder apparent.
In the latter case, we prefer to employ the term delay in acquisition of written language.
It is important to distinguish dyslexia problems that may hinder close the school child:
* Errors normal learning (in France, two quarters of primary schools are recommended by the High Authority of Health (HAS) before exploring a reading disorder; under normal circumstances, reading / writing becomes fully functional after two years Primary);
* Oral language disorders (in this case, oral language, which is affected more than its transposition in writing);
* Syndromes hyperactivity / instability.
* The school phobia.
Difficulties were observed during the identification of words (not to be confused with oralisation systematically, or reading aloud, which is an activity of the oral rather than written), including:
* Confusion phonetic, visual or hearing aids;
* Élisions, additions or reverse letters;
* Slow in processing elements read.
Two types of damage are distinguished:
* Dysphonétique Dyslexia is a difficulty / inability to convert graphemes into phonemes (assembly process deficient);
* Dyséidétique dyslexia is a challenge to memorize the overall shape of words (procedure addressing deficient).
The cognitive scientists often try to identify the disruption of "authorized" underlying:
* Phonological awareness;
* Sequential analysis;
* Discrimination visual or hearing impairment;
* Orientation in time or space.
There are several points of view to try to explain the appearance of turmoil, where different causes are identified according to areas of research:
Some teaching methods may amplify the trouble. It seems to be the case, according to some, the overall method and semi-Global Learning to read (today discussed and less and less practised), but it is not proven.
The sign language meant the unit (what was meant) and the signifier (how they say). The latter may have a written form, the grapheme and a sound, the phoneme.
* The so-called opaque language that forms written and audio do not overlap exactly like English or french, are indicative of dyslexic disorders.
* By cons, there was no unrest dyslexic face the so-called transparent languages, ie languages where written and audio forms overlap exactly as the Croatian, Spanish, Esperanto, 'Italian, Russian, Slovenian and Czech.
The dyslexics often have family history, which is not sufficient to say that this is an innate character linked to genetics.
Several scientific teams have claimed to have discovered the gene for dyslexia. Their results contradict each other since they are different genes (four in 2006), but they converge as these genes are all involved in neuronal migration.
A research project was launched in September 2006 to find answers on this subject. Participants are INSERM CNRS and the Pasteur Institute. Appointed Genedys, it is part of Europe-wide project Neurodys.
There are also dyslexies acquired (following a stroke, for example), also known as alexies, which were used in the work of Carl Wernicke and Paul Broca in the early twentieth century in the study of the role of each brain hemisphere.
Later, an electroencephalogram, it was discovered that dyslexics have almost systematically reduced activity of the left parietal lobe.
But it is especially Roger Wolcott Sperry, Nobel Prize for this work on the brain asymmetry, which refines the principle and opposes:
* A hemisphere rather logical, analytical, which accepts the "absolute", left the record;
* A hemisphere that runs through acquisitions rather analog, more "on" the right, one that creates mental images (not only visual but linked to the senses and to report to space and time).
These studies have helped to refine the report to the neurology, without highlighting origin neurological disorder.
Psychoanalysis (and some clinical psychology who inspired) suggest other avenues of understanding related to affect. Dolto relates an example of collective dyslexia during the evacuation of young Parisians, far from the capital, with their teachers. The explanation offered later by Guy Rosolato or Gerard Haddad is a difficulty in fashioning mental and especially in the images of identification parenting. It expresses a dysfunction between sexual identity, an organization of personality and symbolic meanings.
The symbol request, to be easily assimilated to have a psychological construction similar to that which created it. It is linked to a subjective representation of the world in general, and hence the scheme family Constitution in particular.
For example, dyslexic often suffers a mother over-represented and an absent father ... Therefore, how to put on a valence assemblies vowels / consonants? The reading and writing, it is only handling of symbols and to be able to find otherwise identify themselves. However, in a parental couple, when the father is the place of the mother and vice versa, there is major shift with the cultural symbolism that manages the system of signifiers of our civilization and our system of signs. The signifier and signified can drag on one another and disconnect ... Hence the confusion, errors that persist and sometimes resistant to remediation instrumental in place. Because the etiology is not merely symptomatic.
It is a subjective expression of Dell Ronald Davis, author of a method to correct dyslexia. He explains dyslexia by the disorientation caused by the symbols (words) without mental representation (see visual thinking). These periods of disorientation are characterized by printing "to have the seasickness (printing move). The person may, in extreme cases, having nausea which will encourage it to move (rise, tap your foot, etc.). "Counter" the disagreeable effect. This problem would cause a method of problem solving that would be: "Try to look at" what causes the problem (in this case the word) in all its angles. This technique fontionne very well with objects but is ineffective with symbols. This alters the benchmarks of the report itself, to another time and space. Dyslexia would be an effect, as hyperactivity and other "dys-" (dysgraphie, dyscalculia, etc.).. (source: The gift of learning).
The evolution of written language disorders will depend on several factors which vary depending on the children involved and the type of dyslexia / dysorthographie, the intensity of disorders, early detection, regular and intensive rehabilitation which can last several years, support for motivation and repair experienced failure. Under good conditions for treatment, the environment and support, dyslexic disorders and dysorthographiques fade and can virtually disappear if they are mild. In severe cases, it will always be a weakness in writing, but the yield will be considerably improved and less disabling, even allowing access to studies and interesting information.
In contrast with the definition of disability, we see the emergence of approaches flattering and based on seduction, which can be implemented by sectarian movements.
Just as one can define a blind person as a hypersensitive (at the hearing, for example), these movements define dyslexics to have some higher faculties. It is therefore necessary to address these approaches dyslexia with caution.
Perhaps there is a solution to the problem of children known as "dyslexic": these children actually show symptoms of a more general malaise concerning language. Most of these people come to adapt. The solution envisaged by the front-garde poetry, including works by Lautréamont and Mallarmé (see Revolution poetic language by Julia Kristeva), is to imagine another language, in its new spelling of syllables. These symbols of sounds would be more consistent with the fingerprint, mental impression left by the sound and an equivalent taken shape in the world, involving the creation of a new spelling of phonemes match his form in the world.
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