The word comes from Greek anesthesia aisthêsis (αισθησις: ability to perceive through the senses) in combination with alpha (α) Private and nu (ν) euphonious. Anesthesia may be for one member, one region or the whole body (general anesthesia). Anesthesia is suppression of feelings (and especially the sensation of pain). It aims to allow a medical procedure that would otherwise be too painful. The regional anesthesia is also practiced in cases of chronic pain.
The field of medicine that studies and practice of anesthesia is anesthesia. This medical specialty is new and has revolutionized medicine by allowing surgery quality.
The anesthesiologist intensivist (MAR) is a medical specialist. After 6 years of university training and competition after the appointment of the internship, an anesthesiologist-resuscitator currently obtains its qualification after ten semesters of training in a university hospital (two semesters required in anesthesia, two semesters required resuscitation and half in a mandatory two specialties to choose from).
Throughout his career, he can also work well in the operating room, in intensive care units, emergency, or UAS. Because of their mastery of specific technical actions (infiltration, cannulation ...), some anesthesiology and intensive care to choose additional training to work in the anti-pain centers.
Nurse Anesthetists The State Graduates (IADE) are specialized nurses who, after the initial training of nurses (3 years) have worked at least 24 months full time to take the examination for entry into School nurse anesthetist. After the competition, the course takes 2 years alternating between theoretical input and clinical practicum, 6 theoretical evaluations, clinical evaluations 2, 1 work of professional interest (memory), allowing to stand the tests of the degree of state, composed of 'a theory test and a clinical trial. You need at least 7 years to become a nurse anesthetist. The nurse anesthetists (IADE) realize the anesthesia in collaboration with physicians or only anesthesiologists but always under his supervision (a MAR could intervene without delay). In the operating room, the IADE has an exclusivity period, no one can replace him apart from the anesthesiologist. The IADE can also work in intensive care units, mobile emergency and resuscitation (UAS-MUG), pain control center.
General anesthesia is a medical procedure whose primary purpose is the temporary and reversible consciousness and tenderness, obtained by using drugs administered intravenously and / or inhalation.
In this goal, to achieve without memorization and painless surgery and some invasive tests, endorsed the need for monitoring and control often artificial (mechanical and / or pharmacological) of vital functions: respiration (respiratory rate, tidal volume, pulse oximetry), hemodynamic (heart rate, blood pressure), muscle tone. Because of the specific technical approach, pathophysiology and pharmacology of the anesthetized patient and the imperative of security surrounding the act, the practice of general anesthesia is possible in France under the supervision of specialists in anesthesia.
The regional anesthesia (LRA) has the advantage that it does not cause loss of consciousness. The breathing and protective reflexes of the airway is maintained. When surgery permits, a member of anesthetics decrease complications related to anesthesia (the patient is faster on foot) is therefore a technique of choice for ambulatory surgery. It accompanies the more often sedation with a benzodiazepine or hypnotic low dose. Nevertheless, the overall risk to life is no different from general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia (epidural or spinal anesthesia) except for cesarean section where the advantage goes to the spinal anesthesia (hence its use in more than 95% of cases ).
Medical record in anesthesia
A medical record must be held to transcribe all the events during anesthesia. It takes into account the detailed and continuous medication, fluids and blood products administered and proceedings, and also includes the observation of cardiovascular responses, estimated blood loss, urine output and data from physiological monitors . The case of anesthesia can be written manually on paper, but the paper record is increasingly replaced by electronic registration.
The AIMS (Anesthesia Information Management System) refers to any information system for automated electronic record of patient data in an anesthesia.
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