The diet is the science of nutrition. If the nutrition is defined as the science that analyzes the relationship between food and health, diet for integrating cultural practices related to food.
Nutrition is the science which studies food and their effects on humans, while the Diet is the study of all the rules that should govern the supply of human beings.
The diet is a "standard" social varies over time, as civilizations, according to religions or beliefs and of course depending on the state of nutrition knowledge.
In our time, as a result of scientific development, the two concepts tend to merge. The "standard" diet based on scientific knowledge that continue to increase.
The diet is the most natural to retain or regain their weight, maintain or improve their health.
The basic principles of dietetics include:
* A balanced view, depending on age and activity of the subject is required between proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the day.
* Trace elements and other elements such as calcium, must be present in sufficient quantity (the bones are made of calcium phosphate). Emphasis is also placed on a minimum amount of dietary fiber in which we must not fall, although these fibers are not nutrients but basic training.
* The variety of fruits and vegetables (not fruit meal without at least five different vegetables each day) is recommended for both vitamins and minerals made, as a preventive for colon cancer revealed by statistics .
* A quantity of two gallons of water must be absorbed each day by an adult subject. Just over a quarter of that water already comes from solid foods we eat. The rest can come from hot or cold drinks, or soups.
The evolutionary history of dietetics shows that there is not a diet but diet, which depend on the design of digestion and knowledge of food.
Until the development of chemistry, dietary oldest in Europe, India and China have great similarities:
* Digestion is cooking;
* It is better to eat cooked foods, to aid digestion;
* The body is composed of elements that determine temperament;
* It is recommended to eat a balanced diet, that is to say foods that match his temperament.
For the Hippocratic dietetics, there are 4 elements: Water, Earth, Air, Fire, corresponding to 4 temperaments: lymphatic, melancholic, sanguine and choleric. Each food is classified as hot, cold, dry or wet.
For Ayurvedic nutrition, there are 5 elements: Ether, Air, Water, Fire, Earth, corresponding to 3 temperaments: Vata, Pitta, Kapha. Every food is classified according to the elements, or doshas temperaments, 6 flavors and 3 categories or gunas (Sattvic, or Rajasic Tamasic).
For the Chinese diet, there are 5 elements: Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal, Water, which correspond to the same 5 time. Foods are ranked by taste, color, texture. Food can also be yin or yang.
Ayurvedic nutrition and dietetics Chinese survived the progress of medicine and chemistry, while the Ayurvedic dietary survives longer in India (Medicine Unani-Tibb). Naturopathic medicine has taken some concepts of Ayurvedic medicine.
Dietetics scientific West has changed its definition of the digestion of all mechanical and biochemical processes that processes and absorption of food. It has changed the classification of food, now composed of nutrients directly comparable: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, trace elements.
Dietetics official retains the concept of balanced diet to stay healthy.
Some of the protesters were created diet official, the 20th century, several dietary alternatives which incorporate both dietary theories and ancient scientific knowledge of food: naturopathy, vegetarian movement, Catherine Kousmine method. Diets, more or less scientific, more or less commercial, have also diversified.
Energy: qualitative distribution of sources
Foods contain many nutrients. Some of these nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) are also sources of energy. To create balanced menus, he must know its energy needs and appropriately allocate energy between different sources. It must also provide other non-energy nutrients (vitamins, minerals, fiber and water) in sufficient quantity.
Energy intake of key nutrients is as follows:
* 1 gram of carbohydrate provides 4 kilocalories (kcal) or 17 kilojoules (kJ)
* 1 gram of protein gives 4 kcal or 17 kJ,
* 1 gram of fat provides 9 kcal or 38 kJ,
* 1 gram of alcohol provides 7 kcal or 29 kJ.
The ideal distribution of the energy provided by food is:
* 55% carbohydrate (of which 2 / 3 complex carbohydrates),
* 30% fat (including 1 / 2 vegetable)
* 15% of proteins (including 1 / 2 vegetable).
Called "empty calories" calories found in foods (such as drinks, chocolate bars or alcohol) who bring a lot of energy with very few non-energy compounds necessary such as fiber, minerals and micronutrients.
See detailed article nutrient.
Other elements of nutrition are important, including:
* Dietary fiber,
* Macro-minerals: calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg).
* Trace minerals: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iodine (I), molybdenum (Mo), etc..
The diet has shown that virtually all local cuisines of the world apply these principles in practice. For example,
* Couscous combines starches (carbohydrates), fiber (four vegetables), meat (fat and protein) and is often accompanied by sour milk (calcium).
* English breakfast, which may include eggs, bacon, fried potatoes, fried, sausages, etc.. is very rich in fat, but complements a diet that was once traditionally made from boiled in the day.
There is a distinction between food consumed by humans for 7 million years until the Neolithic (and still consumed by the last hunter-gatherers) and the one used since the Neolithic. Until Neolithic diet consists mainly of fresh fruits and oilseeds, vegetables, tubers (but not potatoes), meat and fish. There are no dairy products, grain or dried vegetables, no salt, no sugar, no oil. The modern diet does not take into account this legacy support. It considers such a balanced meal should include a dairy and starches, or neither one nor the other have been consumed for millions of years and are therefore not necessary for growth or maintenance of the health.
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