Ayurveda, India

Ayur-Veda and Ayurveda or "Ayurvedic medicine" is a wisdom and medicine from India and practiced in other parts of the world as non-conventional medicine. In Sanskrit, the word Ayurveda is a combination of words, Ayus meaning life and veda means science. Ayur-Veda has its source in the Vedas, a set of sacred texts of ancient India, and its principles are those of what is now called the "natural medicine". In this case, it is a holistic approach to the Vedic culture, Hinduism which was loosely based.

Ayurveda is still a form of traditional medicine still alive in Southeast Asia. The oldest literature of Ayurveda appeared in India during the Vedic period. The Sushruta Samhita and the Charaka Samhita were influential works of traditional medicine written during this period. The Ayurvedic practitioners have also developed a number of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for curing various diseases and disorders.

Ayurveda has become a form of alternative medicine in the West, although patents on its medicines have been disputed by official institutions of Western countries and India.

Ayur-Veda is said and nityam apurusheyam (literally, "eternal and not created by humans). It has been preserved in its principles despite the foreign influences (Greek, Chinese, Persian, Tibetan). This system has fallen into disuse for several centuries after the Muslim invasions of north India from the eighth century. Along with the Renaissance in Europe, Ayurveda has reappeared. With the various European colonization, especially British, this medicine has undergone many pressures, and was banned by the English. Only with independence in 1947, under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi, as Ayurveda has again been recognized. Today, Ayurveda seems to generate more interest for its approach to holistic well-being for its medical aspect (which is becoming more and more medical research is ongoing).

The origin of Ayurveda dates back to the Vedas - the Atharva-Vedas in particular - and are related to religion and mythology. There are four Vedas: (Ayur-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda and Atharva-Veda). Ayur-Veda is a branch of the Atharva-Veda. It is therefore upaveda, Veda subordinate. At home, the healing principles outlined in the Atharva-Veda were mainly based on the sound or speech. The hymns were then ways of healing and the mere recitation had, according to the text, the ability to heal everything. Drugs, as we know them today were not yet developed. Subsequently, two medical treatises, the Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita came detail and shape to the Ayur-Veda. In Indian universities, students use the Astanga Hrdayam of Vagbhata a simplified summary of the first two compilations, especially in southern India. The Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta date of the first millennium BC. In Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007) - The surgeon's work - Sushruta wrote:

"The main route of transmission of knowledge during this period was the oral tradition. The language used was Sanskrit - Vedic Sanskrit of this period (2000-500 BC). The most authentic compilation of his teachings and his work is currently available in a treatise called Sushruta Samhita. It contains 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations of minerals and 57 preparations of animal. "

- Sushruta

Underwood & Rhodes (2008) argue that this first phase of traditional Indian medicine identified fever (takman), cough, consumption, diarrhea, edema, abscess, seizures, tumors and diseases skin (including leprosy). The treatment of complex diseases - including angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension and calculations - were also charged during this period, plastic surgery, cataract surgery puncture for the evacuation of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), extraction of foreign bodies, treatment of anal fistulas, treating fractures, amputations, cesarean section and suturing wounds were known. The use of herbs and surgical instruments became widespread.

Other ancient books on Ayurveda include the Charaka Samhita, attributed to Charaka. The oldest written document unearthed related work Sushruta is the Bower Manuscript-dated the fourth century CE. The Bower manuscript cites directly from Sushruta and is of particular interest to historians because of the importance of Indian medicine and its concepts in Central Asia Vagbhata - the son of a former doctor named Simhagupta - has also compiled his works on traditional medicine. In the beginning, Ayurveda included a medical school and a school of surgery. Tradition says that the text Agnivesh Tantra - written by the legendary sage Agnivesh, a student of the mythological saga Bharadwaja - influenced the writings of Ayurveda.

The Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien (ca. 337-422 CE) wrote about the system health of the Gupta Empire (320-550 CE) and - in passing - described the process of institutional approach to medicine Indian who is also in the works Caraka, which refers to a clinic and its equipment described. Madhava (700 CE), Sarngadhara (1300 CE), and Bhavamisra (1500 CE) compiled works on Indian medicine. The medical works of Charaka and Sushruta have both been translated into Arabic during the Abbasid Caliphate (750 CE). This work Arabs made their way to Europe through them. In Italy the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.

British physicians traveled to India to attend a rhinoplasty performed by local methods. Articles on Indian Rhinoplasty were published in the Gentleman's Magazine in 1794. Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local methods of plastic surgery. Carpue was able to produce the first major surgery of the Western world in 1815. The instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were later modified in the West.

The use of the word Veda, meaning knowledge, indicates the importance of Ayurveda in India. Ayur-Veda provides a sustainable well-being in life, both individual and family and society. It puts the human dimension of both physical and spiritual.

Ayurveda believes in the existence of five major elements (the earth, water, fire, air and space) forming the universe, including the human body. Blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow, chyle, and semen are the seven main components of agency. Ayurveda believes in balancing the three "humours: wind / spirit / air, phlegm and bile, each representing divine forces. The doctrine of the three doshas (wind / spirit / air), Pitta (bile) and kapha (mucus) is essential. It is from these that the Ayur-Veda is primarily a diagnosis of body balance and harmony with the universe. Traditional beliefs profess that man has a unique constellation of Dosas. In Ayurveda, the human body has 20 Guna. Surgery and surgical instruments are used. There is a belief that building a healthy metabolism, proper conduct of digestion and excretion bring vitality. Ayurveda also focuses on exercise, yoga, meditation and massage.

The concept of Panchakarma, Pancha in Sanskrit: five and Karma: Action is an Ayurvedic treatment that aims to purify the body by causing the elimination of toxic elements from the body. It includes the following methods:

* Vamana: therapeutic vomiting,
* Virechana: purgation,
* Basti: enema,
* Nasya: the elimination of toxins through the nose,
* Raktamoksha: bleeding.

In Ayurveda, there are eight therapeutic disciplines, called Ashtanga:

* Surgery (Shalya-chkitsa Salya or Tantra).
* Treatment of diseases sitting above the clavicle (Salakyam).
* Internal medicine (Kaya-Chikitsa).
* Demonic possession (Bhuta Vidya): Ayurveda believes in demonic intervention and - as in all forms of traditional medicine - identifies a number of ways to fight against the supposed effect of these influences. 'Bhuta Bhuta Vidya Tantra means or psychiatry.
* Paediatrics (Kaumarabhrtyam).
* Toxicology (Agadatantram).
* Prevention and building immunity (Rasayanam).
* Aphrodisiac (Vajikaranam).

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