Dentistry (also known as dentistry or dental) is the medical science to the study of the tooth as an organ of the oral cavity and its supporting tissues of the temporo-mandibular joints and mouth disease.

The earliest known evidence of the practice of dentistry -7000 years dating back to early Neolithic in the Indus Valley, Mehrgarh in the current Pakistani province of Baluchistan, near the Afghan border. Sedentarization of Man marks the beginning of the Neolithic era saw a profound change in his diet. During the time when man develops new agricultural technologies to adapt to his new lifestyle, her general health is deteriorating and, consequently, its dental health as well. The rate of sugar in the diet increases and drives the development of caries, hitherto unpublished in humans.

This new condition was to develop the beginnings of dental surgery. Craftsmen carving including small bone beads, shells or minerals such as turquoise, have high precision tools for making holes of a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. These were then used to cut the teeth of members of the community patients. Thus it was found in a cemetery containing 225 graves, the teeth of eleven people who have undergone such operations.

Researchers working on the site of Mehrgarh hypothesize that some anesthetic plants could be used because of the intense pain of such an operation if the dentine was reached.

In Asia Minor to -3000, the origin of the cavities is attributed to worms, this explanation is accepted for centuries by many civilizations (Egypt, India, Greece, Africa, Middle East, Europe and even North America).

Papyrus discovered by Edwin Smith (-3000), which is the oldest known medical document, contains descriptions of several dental treatments. The most important medical texts of ancient Egypt, the Ebers Papyrus (-1600 ~ -1500), also describes dental procedures. Dental abnormalities in children are treated by the ingestion of mouse skinned and cooked, this is transmitted and perpetuated by the surrounding civilizations like the Greeks, Romans and Arabs. The technique of the dental filling was also known, including fragments of stone or gold.

Cases of dental practices were discovered in a cemetery Danish (-2500) and North America before the first European contacts. In Babylon, the Code of Hammurabi refers to many dental procedures, and costs may be requested by the practitioner.

In China, the teeth were whitened with powder base of musk and ginger and fillings made with the excrement of bats.

Many Greek and Roman physicians wrote on the treatment of dental diseases. These include Hippocrates, Celsus, Scribonius Largus Pliny the Elder or Claude Galien. This will be the first to describe accurately the anatomy of the mouth with the number of teeth, forms and structures. He discovers the nerves, vessels up the teeth, but still considers them as bones.

With regard to ancient Rome, we know little about the practice of dentists and no legislation has been found. We know that against dental hygiene was present, there is also the use of tooth and bone toothbrushes. Breath problems were hidden by including chewing leaves myrrh or by rinsing the mouth with wine. Mouth with urine (especially coming from Spain and sold at price of gold) was considered beneficial. With regard to dental treatment, fillings were made with crushed slate, among others. Extracted teeth could be replaced by tooth carved ivory or bone, secured by gold ribbons attached to adjacent teeth.

Middle Ages
Al-Razi, one of the great Persian physician, advises strict dental hygiene with cleaning after each meal teeth. One of the fathers of modern surgery, Abu Al-Qasim, in his great work Al-Tasrif presents techniques for scaling, and cautery is the first to describe the tooth extraction, but only to achieve when all other less invasive treatments have failed. The fish on the Arab anatomically because they refrain dissection for religious reasons.

In Europe during the Middle Age there will be no major discovery. The practice of medicine becomes the monopoly of the Church. But this does not prevent the appearance of strippers teeth, which will truly shows.

The boundary between medicine and superstition is not yet clear. But little by little, risking their lives, scientists learn about anatomy and medicine.

The Renaissance saw the development of printing, a revolutionary intellectual, artistic and scientific (Michelangelo, da Vinci, Raphael, Rabelais, Montaigne, Ronsard, Du Bellay). There will be breakthroughs in pharmacology, surgery, urology, obstetrics, ophthalmology.

Barbers are in a difficult position. To increase their knowledge, they must dissect. But they did not. The doctors then take them as assistants.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) described the reports of molar roots with the maxillary sinus. It provides the first accurate drawings that we have teeth. It tries to classify them.

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) described the pulp cavity. He believes, like Celsus, that the permanent teeth develop on the roots of teeth. He was the personal physician of Charles V and Philip II of Spain. It will be pursued by the Inquisition and died in poverty. It will challenge the myths and highlight the old mistakes. It will be a great doctor and a surgeon. Through the microscope, it will show the tooth structure, establish its differentiation with bone and reveal the function of the pulp.

It must Eustache Bartolomeo (c. 1510-1574) the first book devoted to the anatomy of teeth. Unlike Galen, he did not believe that they are bones. It identifies a substance as hard outer cortical marble and intimate compact substance.

However there is a total absence of a therapeutic. Dentists operator does not exist. The only operative dentistry is the barber and peddler.

I must admit that health problems do not concern many people.

To this end, we must not forget to mention Ambroise Pare (1516-1590), born near Laval. He was a barber in Laval and in Paris. Admitted to the Hotel-Dieu de Paris in 1533, he became a fellow surgeon. He opened a shop in 1539. The Brotherhood of St-Come requests. He became bachelor in 1554, then fired a surgeon to Henri II and Charles IX. It will innovate new technologies. It recognizes dentistry as a true specialty. But he thinks also that teeth are bones. He advocates tying of mobile teeth with son gold or silver. It also describes the pulpits, but does not provide treatment.

Modern dentistry
The practice of modern dentistry begins with the work of Pierre Fauchard and his major work, The Surgeon Dentist, ou Traite des dents (1728), where it presents the fitting of artificial teeth and the use of cutter for cutting the teeth. Despite this, it is still set aside in favor of the traditional hammer and chisel. It was not until the twentieth century that the development of specific tools really take its magnitude. It also establishes a close relationship between the overall health of a person's health and dental, and sees one sugar causes cavities. Regarding the treatment policy, he advocated the use of fillings to fill cavities and reduce food waste can be caught. But alongside these achievements, he advocated mouth with urine.

An important technical advance occurred in 1789, where a pharmacist had the idea of using china instead of hippopotamus ivory for making artificial teeth. This permit and to make them more durable, while ivory is broken.

The work of Louis Pasteur in bacteriology help raise awareness of the importance of sterilization. But it takes some time to get into the habits of dentists, to be truly implemented until the twentieth century.

The development of anesthesia, with the work of the dentist Horace Wells, who in 1844 experimented on himself nitrous oxide, improves the quality and comfort of patients.

After the first course in dentistry to 1807 given by Carl Ringelmann in Nuremberg, Germany. The first school specifically dedicated to this branch of medicine was opened in 1839 in Baltimore (Maryland) in the United States. Soon, other schools are springing up everywhere.

The subject is broader than it might seem at first: to study the tooth is to know how it arises (embryology), how she lives in the mouth (mastication, phonation, deglutition & science of dental occlusion) and how she died (untreated tooth decay, leading to necrosis of the tooth, for example).

The tooth is not autonomous in the oral cavity is an integral part which is traversed by a blood flow (blood) and nerve endings (sensitivity). It evolves in symbiosis with the bone in which it is located and also depends on the gum that environment. The tooth is subject to powerful constraints chewing due to Manduca muscles inserted on the lower jaw. It is also permanently immersed in saliva and liquid food, the acidity of which may have variations.

By extension dentistry is the study of everything related to the physiology, pathology, treatment of the teeth, their supporting tissues such as gingiva, the mandibular and maxillary bone, and salivary secretions (1 / 2 tonne per year).

The deepening of medical knowledge has led dentists to divide their operations in several disciplines:

* Conservative dentistry - the crown care Dental treatment of caries, dentin hyperesthesia, etc..
* Endodontics - care within the dental roots: endodontic treatment ...
* Endodontic surgery - surgery the end of the dental roots: excision of cysts and granulomas, and so on.
* Dental occlusion (vulg.) or science of dental occlusion, including GNATHOLOGIE, neuromuscular occlusion and occlusodontologie: the role of the tooth and all the tissues that surround it in the complex of Manduca Stomatognathic. Occlusal functions reflex, innate or acquired, affect the smooth running of the apparatus opposite to gravity, the scientific disciplines and medical specialties.
* Dental surgery - surgery in relation to tooth avulsion of wisdom teeth, including canines, etc..
* Prosthesis - everything related to the recovery of losses of substance of the teeth or replacing missing teeth: crowns, bridge (tooth) s, removable dentures ...
* Periodontology or Periodontics - treatment of periodontal disease (diseases of the tissues surrounding the teeth)
* Implantology - replacing missing teeth by "roots" artificial titanium, fixed in the bone.
* Orthodontic - realign teeth.
* Pedodontics (pediatric dentistry or) - Dental care for children.
* Gerodontologie - Dental Care of the very old

Read also Dental Caries