The medicine (latin medicus: healing) is the science whose purpose is both the study of the human body, its normal operation (physiology), and the conservation of Health (prophylaxis), dysfunction (disease) and various ways to get the restoration of health (therapy).
The delineation of what is medicine and what is not is a source of debate.
The major innovations introduced by Western medicine from the nineteenth century (anesthesia and asepsis then vaccination in the nineteenth century, antibiotics in the nineteenth century), its successes and its dissemination throughout the world particularly through colonization by the West will encourage them to ask, in the first half of the twentieth century, Western scientific medicine as a model of medicine unique globally. The establishment of an international conventional medicine explains the use of the phrase still used "unconventional medicine" for déigner other medicines.
This implies the rejection by institutions outside the definition of medicine of ancient Western medicines, including medicine dealt with medieval obscurantist, and traditional non-Western medicine, including the most structured of all Chinese medicine.
However, in the late twentieth century, some limited encountered by medicine "modern" (resistance to antibiotics due to misuse, chemical side effects, failure to address certain viruses, etc..) Led to reconsider the place of alternative medicines.
This shift has resulted in development in the West, scaled the face of modern scientific medicine, alternative medicine, "soft", traditional or foreign, such as homeopathy, herbal medicine, acupuncture, etc..
Likewise, always in the late twentieth century, including as a result of globalization, traditional medicines or non-Western, have seen their place recognized within the medical world: in 2002, the World Health Organization has and established its first global strategy on traditional medicine.
Some researchers also rehabilitate some aspects of the medieval Western medicine. As the historian of medicine Roger Dachez which highlights the preventive aspect and the overall vision of medicine had the Middle Ages.
The medical process
The stages of a medical procedure are comprised of:
* The etiology is studying the causes of the disease.
* The pathogenesis or pathogenesis is the study of causal mechanism.
* The pathophysiology is the study of changes in major functions during the disease.
* The semiology is the study of all signs. It is related to the so-called clinical opposed to the para-clinical which are the results of tests. Faced with the growing complexity of imaging techniques, he developed a semiology examinations.
* The diagnosis is the identification of the disease.
* The differential diagnosis is the description of diseases including signs and relatives who may be confused.
* The therapy is the treatment of the disease.
* The prognosis is the anticipation of developments thereof.
* The psychology of the patient is an important element in the success of the medical process. As from 1963 the historian of medicine Jean Starobinski, "a truly comprehensive medicine is not limited to the technical aspect, if fully performing his job, the doctor establishes with his patient with a relationship that will satisfy the emotional needs of the latter. The medical procedure has therefore twofold: firstly, the problems of the body and disease are the subject of an acquaintance who is not different from what we take from the rest of nature -- And the body of the patient is then considered a "thing" alive capable of reacting in accordance with general laws on the other hand, the report therapeutic stood between two people, in the context of a personal history - and medicine this time becomes an art of dialogue, where the patient is offered as an interlocutor and as a conscience alarmed.
The branches of medicine
The medicine is located at the junction of science and technology. As explained by historian Jean Starobinski medicine, medicine today is the applied science in which we act, directly or indirectly, on the processes taking place in the human body. It is transformed into a knowledge power. The theoretical medicine (biophysics, biochemistry, physiology, pathophysiology, microbiology, pharmacology, etc.). Establishes the bases and experimental sound of a technique whose implementation is entrusted to "practitioner".
* The anatomy: study human anatomy
* The biology with molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, bacteriology, virology, parasitology
* The biochemistry
* The biophysical
* The histology and embryology
* The human physiology
* The humanities in medicine
Medical specialties and skills
* The general medicine
* The health education
* The anatomical pathology: study microscopic diseased tissues
* The anesthesiology-resuscitation: sedation, anaesthesia, intensive care
* The bio-medical
* The surgery: medical treatment which includes a mechanical intervention within the same tissue
* The aesthetic medicine: type of care to improve the appearance of plastic patient.
* The occupational medicine: preventive medicine to avoid any deterioration in the health of workers due to their work, including monitoring the hygiene conditions of work, the risks of contagion and state of health of workers.
* The emergency medicine: hospital medicine (emergency department) and extra-hospital (Samu), handling emergencies vital
* Nutrition: take charge of metabolism and nutrition
* The pharmacy: dispensing medication and care pharmaco-therapeutic
o Specialty of medical imaging
o Radiation treatment of tumors by ionizing radiation.
By type of patient
* The Andrology: medicine man, taking care of specific diseases of the male.
* The gynaecology: medicine for women, care of specific diseases female.
* L 'obstetric medicine of the pregnant woman. Note medical practice full-fledged midwives, who devote themselves to the supervision of normal pregnancies
* The fetal medicine: fetal medicine through the development of methods explorations of intrauterine life (ultrasound, Doppler, amniocentesis).
* The pediatric medicine for children, very broad and encompassing generally genetics clinic.
* The Neonatology: Medical and resuscitation of newborn and premature babies.
* The geriatric medicine for the elderly.
* The medicine of seafarers: medicine sailors and workers of the Sea
* Angiology: Medicine vessels.
* The Heart: medicine heart disease (electrocardiogram) and the vascular system.
* The dermatology medicine skin diseases
* The endocrinology medicine gland disease, hormonal abnormalities, disorders of nutrition and metabolism.
* Hematology: Medicine blood diseases
* Hepato-gastroenterology medicine diseases of the liver and digestive tract
* The nephrology medicine kidney disease
* Neurology: medical diseases of the nervous system
* Dentistry care of teeth
* Ophthalmology: medicine disease eyes, orbit and eyelids.
* Orthopedics discipline surgical treating disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
* The otolaryngology (ENT): medical diseases of the ears, nose and throat
* The tract medicine disease of the lungs
* The rheumatology: medical discipline treating diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
* The dental medicine diseases of the mouth
* Urology: physicians urinary
* The venereology
* Addictologie medicine addictions, comprising alcoholism, smoking and drug abuse (branch of psychiatry according to some)
* The alcohol: medical disorders related to alcohol
* The allergy medicine allergies
* The oncology or cancer: cancer medicine (including chemotherapy tumors)
* The infection medicine infectious diseases
* Psychiatry: Medicine mental illness and mental illness
* The toxicology treatment of poisoning and intoxications
* The trauma treatment of patients who suffered serious injuries, usually accidental
The types of surgery
* Cardiac Surgery
* Digestive Surgery
* Surgery of the face and neck (dentistry)
* General Surgery
* Surgery infant
* Orthopedic Surgery
* Dental Surgery
* Plastic surgery, reconstructive and cosmetic surgery
* Thoracic Surgery
* Urological Surgery
* Vascular Surgery
* Visceral Surgery
* Surgical Techniques
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