The gynaecology (etymologically science, studying the woman) is a specialty medical-surgical dealing with the physiology and diseases of the genital system of the woman. The doctor practicing gynecology specialist called a gynecologist.

The genital
It's all sex organs which include the functions of insemination, fertilization, pregnancy and parturition (natural childbirth).

This is typically an art specialist. In most countries, women should consult a general practitioner. If circumstances require knowledge or equipment which the latter does not, they are led to a gynecologist. However, the USA, law and many insurance companies allow the disease to consider gynecologists in general medicine and some women choose this option.

As elsewhere in medicine, the main instruments of diagnosis are the clinical history and examination. The gynaecological examination has this special that quite intimate it involves a special instrument: the speculum. The latter consists of two hinged blades made of polished metal, which is used to open the vagina and allow examination of the cervix uteri. The gynecologists can also conduct a review with both hands (one hand on the abdomen, two fingers into the vagina), to feel the uterus and ovaries. They may occasionally do a rectal exam. Some gynecologists men often have a female assistant (a nurse or a medical student) for this kind of review. There are normally abdominal ultrasound to confirm the review with both hands.

The Department of Cosmetic Surgery at the School of Medicine of the University of Virginia recommends no use for surgical gloves sprinkled talc, because of acute and chronic problems that may arise if the product enters the abdominal cavity through the vagina. They say the same thing condoms on which employs the same talcum powder.

* Ultrasound: always possible, painless and non-radiating, perhaps through endovaginale (especially for the study of the cervix) or pelvic, it is particularly useful during pregnancy, to monitor growth, morphology, the presentation of the baby.
* MRI: less available ultrasound, MRI provides images of great quality, especially in research fibroids and some cancers.
* Hystérographie: radiating little consideration, painless (in most cases ...), presenting a risk of infection, to study the uterine cavity (less and less used, indicated especially in the context of a review of infertility )
* Scanner: radiating, painless and fast, he studied general diseases, or in cases of diagnostic uncertainty.
* Hysteroscopy: review the cabinet or under general anesthesia to see the uterine cavity and perform biopsies directed, useful for diagnosis of endometrial cancer.

Vagin and cervix
The gynaecological examination of the vagina and cervix into two stages:

* Vaginal touch in search of a pain, a polyp, a cervical lesion;
* Laying speculum enjoying the cervix and vagina, seeking a vaginal discharge, bleeding, lesions, and allowing the cervico-vaginal smear.

Troubles rules
* Hypo or hyper-menorrhee: disorders of the duration (ET frequency, following acceptances)
* Trace or polymenorrhee: disorders of the quantity
* Trouble on the frequency:
o Pollakimenorrhee, less than 24 days
o Spaniomenorrhee, more than 35 days
* Menorrhagia: rules long and abundant (ET frequent, following acceptances)
* Métrorragie: bleeding outside the rules
* Metro-menorrhagia: perpetual bleeding.
* Dysmenorrhea: This term refers to the difficulty of disposing of rules. But above all means by the word rules painful (the term algomenorrhee would be more accurate).
* Amenorrhea: lack of rules for at least 3 months outside of pregnancy.
o Primary: a woman over 18 who have never had its rules.
o Secondary: a woman who already had its rules.

Problems with menopause
* Unrest rules (irregular, abundant)
* Weight gain
* Circulatory
* Hot flash
* Psychiatric disorders
* Drought mucosal
* Pilosite
* Atrophy glandular breast
* Osteoporosis
* Risk and coronary heart

Pathologies of the uterus
* Fibroma: benign tumor of the uterine muscle
* Polyps: outgrowth, training benign sometimes associated with cancer
* Malformations:
o Aplasia: absence of uterus
o Uterus bicorne, septate uterus

The prolapse is a failure of support structures and pelvic perineal. The disease is favoured by a long or difficult childbirth, muscular atrophy, a slimming, a hypoactivity, a congenital malformation.

* There are no specific clinical signs but can result in varied symptoms that can change from one patient to another:
o rare pain but rather a heaviness or discomfort local
o occasional dyspareunia
o urinary disorders varied (see the contrary incontinence dysuria, pollakiurie, repeated urinary infections)
o digestive disorders (constipation terminal)

o disorders related to exteriosation

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