The term refers neurosis diseases and nerve disorders mixing personality disorder.
The word was invented in the eighteenth century by the Scottish doctor William Cullen in 1769. It is taken up by Sigmund Freud from 1893 to appoint a mental disorder (phobia, obsession ...) generated, according to the theories métapsychologiques by a psychic conflict repressed. In this context, the psychoanalytic cure is to treat neuroses by purging ( "perlaboration") desires, fears and repressed traumatic memories that generate them.
The definition of Adler
In 1913, Alfred Adler, founder of individual psychology, explains: "You can understand every neurosis as an attempt to get rid of a feeling of inferiority to move to a sense of superiority. But the path of neurosis does not lead to the line of social activities and it fails to resolving issues of life. He leads a small circle of family and lead to isolation.
Détourné a large part of reality, the neurotic leads a life in the imagination. It uses many tricks him to flee the real demands and seek a location that allows it to evade responsibility and social performance. These freedoms and the privilege of suffering up the substitute for the original purpose (but risky) superiority.
Thus neurosis presents itself as an attempt to evade each constraint of the community through a constraint (personal). This is so that it can actually go in opposition to the characteristic part of life and its real. Coercion contrary is a revolting. It will seek its substance in such emotional experiences adapted or comments. The world of ideas and feelings of the neurotic is concerned by such incentives but also by futilities if only they are able to divert the gaze and attention of the patient life issues. The logic also passes under the diktat of coercion. This process can go up to the total elimination of logic, as in psychoses.
All the will and aspirations of all patients are under the diktat of his political prestige. The neurotic has always resort to pretexts to let life issues unresolved and automatically turns against the development of a sense of community. "
With the development of psychoanalysis, the concept evolves to finally find its place in the tripartite structure:
According to Freud, can be classified in neurosis psychological disorders following:
* Obsessional neurosis
* Anxiety neurosis
* Psychonévrose (transference neurosis and narcissistic neurosis)
The genesis of neuroses
In this section, we distinguish, from the writings of Freud, two kinds of anguish, we clarify the notion of psychic trauma and we understand how the return is at the root of neurotic symptoms whose repetition compulsion is a part.
Sigmund Freud in 1926, wrote: "The anguish, originating reaction to distress in the trauma is then reproduced in the dangerous situation as a warning signal" (Freud, 1926, Inhibition, symptoms and anxiety. Paris, PUF, p. 96). Through the pain that is the consequence of the loss objectale with a massive discharge of tensions in the libidinales me, it makes the transition from anguish automatic hilflosigkeit, mental distress formidable, which flooded the organization of me, the anguish signal that activates the reactions of me to cope with the sensed danger. Indeed, that the displeasure associated with the loss of the perception of the object, namely the mother that the child is investing because it is associated with relief of tension pulsionnelles (it thrives when it is hungry, and so on. ), Is the necessary condition for the emergence of distress signal. The experiences of satisfaction renewed again and again allow the child to become aware of the existence of the person who watches over him and invest it as a source of pleasure. "The passage of the bodily pain the psychic pain is transforming the investment narcissistic investment object" (p. 101). The function anticipatory self depends on the strength of it, its ability to link affects and representations, ie to give meaning to the experience. In anguish distress, "the affect manifests itself mainly through an economic effect" (Andrew Green, A., 1970, The Journal affect in French psychoanalysis, tr Volume XXXIV No. 5-6, September 1970, p. 960), in anguish signal, "with an effect of symbolization." The anguish which is always the result of a conflict between two opposing tendencies to discharge without limit if the words fail to contain the evil-being.
Freud, 1933 (XXXII ° conference: Anxiety and drive life in news conferences introduction to psychoanalysis. Paris, Gallimard, 1984, p. 111-149), said the distinction between anxiety before a real danger (external, conscious) and neurotic anxiety (internal danger, not conscious), which occurs in three different circumstances: - in anxiety neurosis where she is floating anxiety - a fear that it is linked to representations determined but whose magnitude is disproportionate -- In the hysteria that it focuses on a body part. The symptoms are created to avoid the eruption of anxiety. In phobia, the internal displacement of danger to an external danger allows avoidance by the leak - also give a materiality to diffuse fears as a phobia of emptiness. In fact, he explained that the anxiety before a danger outside but whose internal impulses danger is a condition and a preparation, causing refoulement. He added that the danger is external castration for boys and the loss of love with the girl, whose prototype is the pain of infant processed by the absence of the mother. In other words, the risk is losing something essential to balance the subject. In 1926, Freud also expressed the assumption that the dangerous situation could be inflated by a certain amount of anxiety drive of nature "masochistic" because from the impulse of destruction directed against his own person. Linked to the pulse of life and put at the service of achieving an objective, this impulse leads to character traits such as combativeness, tenacity, perseverance, ambition, and so on. The reversal of aggressive impulses against itself is something common, especially when the ambivalence (positive and negative feelings) in respect of a loved one is perceived as wrong or harmful.
Freud also argues that the removal of anxiety stems originating distress born of a too-full of excitement beyond me. This state where the principle of pleasure fails to maintain homeostasis is the traumatic factor. In 1923, he defined the trauma already in the following manner: "We urge the traumatic external excitations strong enough to break the barrier represented by means of protection. I think it is hardly possible to define trauma other than by its reports, and understood, with a defence, once effective against the excitations "(Freud, 1923, beyond the principle of pleasure in testing of psychoanalysis. Payot Paris Small Library, 1968, p. 36). The secondary returns resulting from anxiety signal. These considerations permit to suggest that archaic trauma remain in trace amounts in the body image, a kind of sensations without meaning because of all matters not representations. In this, we do not Freud away when he wrote: "(...) the memory traces returned, related to its first-ever psychic experiences, do not exist at home to the state and are linked even in a some extent incompatible with the process side "(p. 53). This is the basis on which Winnicott (1974) is based in his article "The fear of collapse" (in International Review of Psycho-Analysis, No. 1).
In 1939, Freud notes clearly that "the genesis of neuroses boils down everywhere and always in very early childhood impressions" (Freud, 1939, Moses and Monotheism. Paris, Gallimard, 1975, p. 100) and that the combination of this etiological condition with a more fragile constitution contribute to pathology. He then sets out the common features of these traumatic events - all took place in early childhood - all are usually forgotten - "it is printing of a sexual or aggressive and certainly also made early injuries to me (narcissistic injury) [located] "(p. 101). It also introduces two characters of neurotic symptoms:
1) The first results from the effects of trauma are twofold. a) The positive effects "are attempts to put the trauma in value, ie to revive the memory of the incident forgotten or, more precisely, to make it real, to revive" (p. 103). b) The negative reactions or defence reactions such as inhibitions and avoidance phobiques have an opposite view. These two effects which are fasteners trauma or so-called automatic repetition, also contribute to the formation of character. "The neurosis may be seen as a direct manifestation of a" fixation "on these patients at a time early in their past" (p. 105).
2) The second character is neurotic symptoms compulsionnel their nature, ie that their mental intensity makes irrelevant the thought process adapted to the outside world and, therefore, the internal psychological reality supplants external reality. And Freud adds: "... and the path to psychosis is so open "(p. 105).
In this text, it suggests a way to locate moments of derealization state-limits under the hegemony of repetition compulsion deadly injury early narcissistic injury which he relates certain deficiencies in the thinking (see below).
The childhood trauma causes changes me as scars, which are resurfacing after a period of latency, probably due to the physiological latency. The delayed effect of trauma occurs when the demands of external reality come into conflict with the defensive organization of me. "The disease can be seen as an attempt at healing, as an attempt to bring together elements of me that the injury had differentiated into a powerful opposite the outside world." (P. 107). Freud, later in his briefing note the conditions for the return of the repressed: - weakened against the power of investment - or the strengthening of elements linked to pulsionnels returned, or - the impression arose from the similarity between recent events and alumni who wake up in the back. "In this case, the recent material is reinforced throughout the latent energy of back and the latter acts in the background of the recent printing and with his assistance" (p. 129). When we are tired, harassed worries, our forces are being depleted, against investment yields and our usual defence mechanisms are less effective. We become irascibles, sometimes on the verge of tears, and we craquons for nothing. Sometimes certain situations, special events arouse a reaction which we do not explain the intensity until we establish a parallel with a moment of the past. When one or more basic needs to our balance are not met and they are minimized or unrecognized, images, scenes of film or live, and so on. can inflame the lack and trigger an emotion difficult to contain. The repressed is a bit like a fragile flower of skin waiting to be effleurée to surface.
Freud in this text stipulates that the trauma causes a dissociation of me, part being in line with the outside world and another wounded, which must be protected. He speaks of neurosis rather than as the culmination of a conflict impulses but as a training designed to prevent an outbreak of me. The repressed this part would be subtracted from me or experienced distress that has caused. This view of Freud is very far away from where the previous refoulement result of the intervention of the Ego (the moralistic) to fight with the requirements of pulsionnelles that.
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