Birth control has been since the beginning of the twentieth century, various policies to reduce fertility rates, especially through contraception. It is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the use of agents, devices, methods or procedures to reduce the likelihood of conception or avoid". Contraception refers only to temporary and reversible methods, otherwise it is of sterilization: castration, vasectomy or tubal ligation. Besides contraception and sterilization, birth control policies, sometimes linked to a Malthusian design, conduct also incentives (fiscal, economic, political, etc.)
The term originates contraception:
* Contra: cons
* (Con) desk, Latin conceptio of concipere: design: formation of a new being, to give birth.
Contraception from Antiquity to Malthus
Already in Mesopotamia (1600 BC Jesus Christ), women use stones to not conceive: they choose oval or rounded stones they bring into the vagina, as far as possible, the intrauterine method. In Egypt, the Ebers Papyrus prescribes several recipes contraceptive consisting of crocodile dung, soda, honey and gum arabic. They say condoms are the first Egyptian, made with the intestines of small animals (chats. ..). According to some authors, there would also, in Egyptian papyri, writing saying that Ramses would have to distribute contraceptives to the population limit overcrowding and the risk of famine.
For their part, the Aramaic Hebrew use of confession, the advice of the rabbi (second century AD), the Moukha, sponge placed in the vagina that prevents sperm from reaching the uterus.
The Greeks and Romans used them on abortion and infanticide in cases of failed drugs and amulets.
The Gauls for their part did not have this problem.
Writings of the ancient advocated for women to skip several times after having sex to bring out a product consisting of mucus and sperm, preventing fertilization.
Soranus of Ephesus describes the practice of abortion and the construction of a buffer that prevents the ascent of sperm, talking sponge Levant, known for their flexibility and their absorptive capacity. These sponges, known as "miniatures," were always used in the twentieth century.
The Catholic Church, the clearest way, has always opposed to contraception. His recommendation natural methods of birth control is contrary to prove that there are many alternatives to contraception (Natural Family Planning), which help prevent what it sees as a moral evil goal. The Roman Church condemns any conjugal act deliberately amputated his procreative meaning. However, sexuality has to be "source of joy and pleasure", and spouses may find this fun and enjoying it, just as having a responsible fatherhood. But this responsibility and possible regulation of birth can be done in respect of the truth of the relationship, and an expression of freedom subject to the will. Thus the Catholic Church preaches Does abstinence periods fertile sign of love, respect, freedom and will, rather than from failure to observe the profound significance of the body implied by the artificial means of contraception. The Catholic Church promotes all the techniques that enable couples to have children as long they respect the inseparable connection between sexual union and procreation.
There are a bunch of wacky beliefs contraceptive, contraceptive use here are some recipes from the eleventh to the fifteenth century:
* Ignite a cabbage stump and off in the menstrual blood;
* Not to be pregnant for a year, just for women to spit three times into the mouth of a frog;
* Attach the eye of a deer with a ladle root marjoram and drizzle in the evening from the urine of a red bull;
* Make a belt with the hairs of the ears of a mule, an animal sterile, or drink his urine, talismans with his ears or his testicles;
* Elephant dung mixed with mare's milk in scope talisman is placed over the vulva;
* Wash in the fountain of Saint Martial and drinking water from the fountain of San Esteban;
It was not until the sixteenth century to see the first condom herbal invented by Gabriele Falloppio. We also test at that time, various injections intra-vaginal. In general, we prefer to speak of then hugs and maneuvers reserved postcoital. In 1661, Madame de Sevigne speaks in his "Letters to his daughter" to use "restringents" or sleeping alone.
Of the nineteenth century Malthusianism
In the nineteenth century, Thomas Malthus observed that the curve of births exceeds the curve of subsistence. Fearing overpopulation, he advocates the use of birth control would not prevent the enjoyment.
The birth control policy implementation in various countries has followed different goals and different means. She was able to go with Eugenics (such as Nazism) or with forced sterilization methods (Japan, USA, Sweden, Nazi Germany, Peru under Fujimori in the 1990s, etc.).. At other times, it rather led to behavior to a decline in fertility rates, particularly through the right or the economy. Other countries have instead implemented a pronatalist policy, aimed at increasing fertility (notably France under the Third Republic, and fascist Italy or Nazi Germany). The population explosion in the twentieth century, world population from 1.6 to 6 billion people from 1900 to 2000, but supported policy advocacy of birth control.
From the late nineteenth century, the birth control policies are becoming popular, especially in the Anglo-Saxon, combining several factors, including fear of an explosion of births of people in the colonized, the popularity of eugenic theories, but also the progress of secularism and feminism, which asserts the right to dispose of his body.
After the Second World War, binding methods (in particular programs sterilizations constraints) have lost their legitimacy at the same time as eugenics, although some programs have been continued (in the U.S. until the 1960s, the Peru in the 1990s). States have a tendency to operate through incentives not binding under the name of family planning, with the notable exception of India and China. The restrictive nature of the methods of birth control has been denounced in particular in the 1980s, some authors stressing the continuity between the methods used by democratic regimes and those used by totalitarian regimes. Meanwhile, religious fundamentalism and the movement "pro-life critics of these policies.
Promotion of the control populations (partly supported by international organizations like WHO) has led to deploy contraception in countries with fragile economies and population growth after the agricultural revolution (the ability to increase feed populations) and the medical revolution (international deployment medicine, hygiene practices and substantially reducing mortality). These policies were initiated in the 1950s by India and Pakistan, and will continue so brutal in China and India during the 1980s. In India, Sanjay Gandhi, son of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, so does punish recalcitrant populations, while implementing Deng Xiaoping in 1979, the "one-child policy."
These two countries, the most populous of the twentieth century have indeed been heavily used contraception, abortion and sterilization to limit their population growth. Thus, in the Canton Chinese Linyi (Shandong Province), a campaign of forced sterilizations and abortions has assigned 7,000 women in 2005. The family planning officials wanted to correct the evil force of numbers of births in this region. The peak was reached in 1983 with over 50 million people affected by a variety of ways (16 million sterilized women and 4 million people, 14 million abortions, 18 million insertions of intrauterine devices ). In some cases, forced contraception has also been used as in Tibet.
Schooling, access to care, increasing the duration of the celibacy of women and urbanization reduce the birth rate. Under such conditions, most people adopt a birth rate close to the western rate. In general, birth control policies have had a moderate effect, however, despite the investment made in the 1970s. In Brazil, the decline in fertility has occurred in the absence of family planning program, caused by the rising level of education of women. It also could have occurred before the implementation of policies of birth control.
The birth control policies in France
Having a smaller population than Germany, France applies a pro-natalist policy in the early twentieth century. It thus prohibits, July 31, 1920, contraceptive propaganda. This policy will be continued throughout the Third Republic, then under Vichy. Reforms of family law in the 1960s will be a relative term.
On 8 March 1956, the association is created Maternity happy, she will advocate for providing access to contraception and the French to abolish the 1920 law.
The year 1961 will know in March, the condemnation of "any method of contraception or sterilization means which is intended to hinder the birth of children" by the Assembly of Cardinals and Archbishops of France. Then in June, the opening of the first Planning Centre in Grenoble by Henri Fabre, and a second in Paris in October.
In 1967, the Act is repealed Neuwirth law of 1920, allowing contraception, which will be repaid in 1975 with the Veil law.
Only 5% of French women aged 18-45 years using any contraceptive method, and over two-thirds of unwanted pregnancies occur in women who report using a contraceptive method. While the age at first sex does not move for 20 years (17 years on average), the average age of mother at birth of her first child is constantly increasing (26.5 years in 1977 to nearly 30 years in 2004).
Methods of birth control
Many contraceptive methods are used by humans since time immemorial. The efficiency and ease of use vary greatly.
Contraceptive methods can be broken down into several categories:
* Methods "barriers"
o female condom
o diaphragm and cervical cap
* Hormonal contraception Women
+ Combined pill
+ Progestin pill
o hormonal implant
o injectable progestin
o patch or contraceptive patch
o vaginal ring
o IUDs with hormones, see below
# Male hormonal contraception
* Being tested: association of a progestin pill or hormonal implant hormone (similar or identical) to testosterone (for the maintenance of male sex characteristics) as a pill or injection acting several weeks; efficiency (absence of sperm in semen) would require three months of taking medication without interruption to the shutdown, it would take three months for sperm fertilizing.
# IUDs (intrauterine device) or IUD (which is not a method of contraception but contragestation)
* IUD "classic" copper
* Hormonal IUDs also named SIU (intrauterine system)
# Methods of sterilization
o Tubal ligation
o Essure procedure
# Natural methods
* Coitus interruptus or "withdrawal"
* Shower vaginal inefficient
* Methods observing the female menstrual cycle
o temperature method
o observation of the mucus or Billings method
o Symptothermal method, which combines several observations: temperature, cervical mucus and position of the cervix uterus
o rhythm method
* Breastfeeding on demand
* As defined, sexual abstinence itself can be classified as a contraceptive method
The natural methods are sometimes not regarded as means of contraception. That said, it falls within the definition given by WHO as "methods or procedures to reduce the probability of conception" and as such seem to have a place in this article.
For the record, excluding sexual practices such as vaginal penetration sodomy, oral sex or mutual masturbation, does not normally lead to fertilization, but it is possible that sperm come in contact with the vagina.
There are two more methods of contraception known as "emergency", is the morning after pill (which actually combines action and contraceptive contragestative) and IUD insertion.
Until the 1960s, contraception was almost exclusively mechanical. It became massively with the advent of medical hormone therapy ("the pill").
Challenge and controversy
Of its implications on population, birth control is a major philosophical, religious and political issue, subject to controversy.
Contraception has long been considered undesirable, and sometimes prohibited, each human being considered as an additional wealth and sex as pleasure is sometimes regarded as shameful and repressed. In the twentieth century, Western sexual liberation movements have changed that perception. Contraception is now often seen as a means of individual control of fertility and reproduction for personal fulfillment.
Some religious groups refuse to use contraception. Protestant and Muslim authorities have not adopted a single position.
Catholicism is against the use of any artificial contraception and birth control advocates by the methods of natural family planning.
In 1930, Pope Pius XI and banned all artificial methods interfere with the ability to laprocreation. Twenty-one years later, Pius XII authorizes periodic abstinence and birth control, for economic reasons, eugenic, social or medical.
On 29 July 1968, the encyclical Humanae Vitae Paul VI condemns the use of the contraceptive pill and any artificial birth control. It advocates, however, responsible fatherhood, which may use the methods (called natural) birth control. The Catechism of the Catholic Church recalls the pleasure and joy in sexuality are gifts from God intended for husbands. The regulation of birth, however, must be within a framework of freedom and desire, love and respect of spouses through abstinence fertile periods.
This message is often misunderstood, poorly received (but also poorly conveyed by means of modern communications, which form the teachings of the Church does not always lend itself well), and source of many divisions of people with the Catholic Church , who focus on this aspect of his teaching.
See also Pregnancy