Scurvy

Scurvy
Scurvy is a disease caused by a deficiency in vitamin C harmful resulting in humans who lacks the intragenic summary, there is severe by the death of the infant, breastfeeding insufficient bone growth slowed, periodontitis, an incoherent immunity manifested by purulence gums, bleeding, and at worst death.

Scurvy, now virtually disappeared, adds substantially all other diseases, even the most benign, can sometimes make them deadly.

Causes
Vitamin C is a precursor of coenzyme of the enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of collagen. This hydroxylation is essential for the formation of triple helical collagen fibers that maintain the structure of tissues. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant: there are groups proline hydroxylation and especially lysine of collagen, by attacking a molecule of oxygen, thereby maintaining the structure of the vessels. An oxygen atom is used for the hydroxylation of an amino acid, but the other atom is present as free radical O.. This is a powerful oxidant, it weakens the capillaries of the gums, leading to the appearance of scurvy. Therefore, the release of two hydrogen atoms by ascorbic acid will inhibit the oxidative attack of the radical, according to the following reaction: 2 H + O → H2O.

Achievement scorbutic language Scurvy occurs initially by fatigue and edema by members, and bleeding of mucous membranes of the nose and gums, and numerous bruises under the skin. The teeth loose teeth to fall. Unable to stand, individuals infected die of exhaustion or a respiratory infectious complication.

History
* Circa 1600 BC, AD: First described in the Papyrus Ebers.
* 1535: Between 14 December 1535 and April 15, 1536, during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier in Canada, 25 of the 110 crew members die from the disease. One day, Cartier encountered Domagaya, son of the Iroquois chief Donnacona, who seemed touched by the mysterious disease. A few days later, he sees him again, but this time in perfect health. He questioned and it gives the recipe of taking the branches of a tree called anneda (white cedar), "it was necessary to crush the bark and leaves saide wood, and put everything in boiling water." The sailors quickly find their strengths through this beverage. We also read that it is rather an infusion needle and pine bark. It is now a drug in the pycnogenol.

* 1600: A report of the Royal Navy reports that about 10,000 sailors were victims of scurvy during the previous 20 years.
* 1747: On board HMS Salisbury, James Lind performs an experiment showing that oranges and lemons cured scurvy.
* 1795: Following the results obtained by James Lind, the Royal Navy provides a daily ration of lemon or lime to its sailors.
* 1805: The invention of Nicolas Appert canned food (canning) allowed a balanced diet with vitamins and therefore marine.
* 1913 EV McCollum (U.S.) begins to establish the nomenclature of vitamins and calls of vitamin C (scurvy-Preventing "water-soluble C) the substance that protects against scurvy.
* 1928-1932:
o Albert Szent-Gy├Ârgyi (Nobel Prize 1937) isolated "hexuronic acid" from the cabbage, orange and pepper, while looking for a substance capable of combining oxygen to prevent the occurrence of brown spots on rotting fruit.
o WAWaugh CGKing and isolate the vitamin C of lemon and orange and discover that "hexuronic acid" is vitamin C. The hexuronic acid is renamed ascorbic acid (abbreviation antiscorbutic).
o Walter Norman Haworth establishes the chemical formula.
* 1933: Tadeusz Reichstein synthesizes vitamin C.

Read also Vitamin C

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