The sanatorium is a medical specialty in the treatment of tuberculosis. First sanatorium France, the Marine Hospital at Berck-sur-Mer was built near the Dover Strait, a coastal dune isolated in 1861, initially for scrofulous children, rickets and "nodes", names that used to cover the 'real time of tuberculosis (scrofula is a violation tuberculous lymph node and skin), and other diseases related to malnutrition, pollution and poor hygiene and accommodation which prevailed in the industrial mining area.
The word comes from the Latin root meaning sanatorius own healing.
The sanatorium is based on:
1. treatment with the treatment of air, light and sun.
The natural landscape (sea, forest, mountain ..) and the distance from the pollution of cities and industries were also expected to contribute to a return to health. The building must be adapted to the entrance of sunlight and fresh air.
2. isolation of infectious TB.
Promiscuity is a factor of contagion, sanatoriums are often very large and designed them to facilitate hygiene.
Sanatorium (sometimes written in the plural sanatoriums in the nineteenth and early twentieth century) have been massively built in the early twentieth century in remote areas of pollution, mountain, sun on trays or on the seafront to enjoy the outdoors and of disinfectant and restorative virtues of the sun (architecture heliotropic).
France alone, 250 sanatoriums, which were constructed from 1900 to 1950, at which time, antibiotics have to fight against this scourge. At the end of the twentieth century the century, antibiotic resistance and the resurgence of the disease in poor countries and the former Soviet Union suggest that sanatoria could perhaps regain their former position.
The first hospital dedicated to phthisis (pulmonary tuberculosis) in France was that of Sainte-Marie de Villepinte (Seine-Saint-Denis) completed in 1880 on the initiative of the "work of consumptive girls" created in 1878. A second hospital was consumptive completed 8 years later (in 1888) to Ormesson (Val-de-Marne) only for treatment of young boys aged 2 to 16 years, managed by the "Work of children with tuberculosis" also created in 1888. A branch will open in Villiers-sur-Marne in 1893. At that time, tens of sanatoriums were already in Germany, and several were active in Switzerland and the United States. The late French was offset in particular through the dissemination by the Belgian doctor Moeller in 1894 an illustrated booklet on the German and Swiss sanatoria, and two dissertations in medicine in Paris by Siegmund-Adolph Knopf (phthisiologist German practicing in the United States), and Paul French Beaulavon, respectively in 1895 and 1896, the sanatorium. Knopf encourages sanatoriums in strings of small cottages along the lines of "Adirondack Cottage Sanitorium" (State of New York, USA), Dr. Edward Livingston Trudeau, minimizing the risk of contagion model which prefigured that of "Muskoka Cottage Sanatorium (Ontario, Canada). In 1899 Dr. Frederick Rufenacht Walters (English) will also produce an illustrated book on the various existing models of sanatoria.
Adults reluctant to be hospitalized in a sanatorium, some projects have sought to allow couples or families to stay near the patients. One of these projects was launched in France in 1904 in Montigny-en-Ostrevent (Department of the North), initiated by Professor Albert Calmette at the Pasteur Institute in Lille on the model of the sanitarium in Saranac Lake United States, United, promoted by Knopf as a model of excellence, but could not operate because of the war (conscription by the Germans, and sabotage by the Germans before requisition by the British), being used today in the rehabilitation of seriously wounded.
See also Tuberculosis