Angioma is a vague term, often associated with the expression birthmark, and designating a malformation resulting from blood or lymphatic vessels abnormally dilated, whose origin is poorly known and poorly understood changes.
* They remain unknown in most cases.
* Some hemangiomas can be congenital
* Others appear spontaneously and form spots such as burgundy color and sizes for different aspects.
* Others (among cutaneous tuberous angiomas in children is a congenital malformation associated with 10 to 30% of cases of fetal alcohol syndrome) would be induced by alcohol.
Consider in the 2000s that about ten children has a birthmark.
The angioma reflects the immaturity of the vascular system of the newborn and, in most cases disappear spontaneously without leaving any traces.
There are several types of hemangiomas:
* The angioma in embossed or hemangioma, type of tumor
* The plan angioma, posing as a spot usually present at birth on the face and / or body (sometimes called "birthmark" or "dregs of wine stain")
* The syndrome of Sturge-Weber or SSW) is an angioma plan, which is not a tumor, which is not hereditary and the etiology is still unknown. It can sometimes be accompanied by ocular and neurological disorders. In more than 50% of cases, the person affected by this syndrome develop glaucoma in the same side as the facial angioma plane of the forehead and upper eyelid, especially if the AP occupies the upper and lower eyelids. Sometimes found vascular anomalies of the fundus or leptomeningeal vascular anomalies that can cause, often before 2 years, epilepsy (in 75% of patients with intracranial vascular abnormalities) and a motor deficit more or less important to the hemibody contrast, delayed acquisition (incidence: 1 case per 50 000). The origin could be a somatic mutation intrauterine affecting the anterior neural primordium, before the migration of cephalic neural crest.
* Tufted angioma (symbol: AT), also called "Angioblastome of Nakagawa"
* Cavernous Angioma (or "brain cavernoma"); vascular malformation located largely in the brain, usually undetected, except when it causes seizures and / or brain hemorrhages. (Frequency: 1 issue in 1000, with familial in 20% of cases). Three genes located on chromosomes 7 and 3 appear to be involved.
* Angioma stellar appearing in patients with liver cirrhosis, during pregnancy, some treatments against cancer for example.
Diseases are similar hemangiomas: benign (not cancerous) endothelial cells (lining blood vessels) which are growing at an abnormally fast pace.
It is now possible to treat spider, for example, using a laser or in some cases electrocoagulation. The results depend on patient age, location of the angioma and its characteristics. The treatment may, in some cases, allow a complete disappearance of the angioma, but not systematically.
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