Braille is a tactile writing system for use by blind or severely visually impaired. The system is named after its inventor, French Louis Braille (1809-1852) who had lost his eyesight after an accident. Student at the Institute for blind children, it changes and improves the code Barbier. In 1829, the first presentation of his method.
Before Louis Braille
In the seventeenth century, the Italian Jesuit Francis Lana imagina various systems of writing code for the blind. He devised a method including relief printing on thick paper and a "system that allows blind people to write only by drawing lines and making points.
Haüy Valentin was one of the first french to have an interest in communication problems encountered by blind and visually impaired. Born into a wealthy family of Picardy in 1745, he studied languages at the University of Paris. It is without doubt the passion of the modes of expression that led him to look first to the deaf-mutes, single "curious," and the blind. He felt that their cases are raised only one problem: how to enable them to read? He quickly found an answer to this question by developing a system to enable them to read or write sentences as well as mathematical operations. He experimented by getting permission to build a school for blind children (following the example set by the abbot of the Sword for the deaf and mute). His writing was composed of two columns, each with one to six points. Thus, vowels were identified by the presence of a point on the left column. The number of points on the right hand column would know that sounds were concerned case.
Later, Charles Barbier de La Serre, a former artillery officer, is fascinated by this research that were, for him, a medium that would allow soldiers to read and write in the dark without being spotted; system but had no success. So he decided to adapt it for the blind. Beginning in 1821, Barber began to experiment with his method of students in the School once created by Haüy and became the Royal Institute of the Blind. The system, he called sonography, was based on relief printing by 12 points according to their associations, transcribed 36 different sounds. Despite the complexity and shortcomings of this system, the results were conclusive: the reading will be much improved. Barbier had understood the superiority of characters consisting of those points which are composed of lines.
Louis Braille was not born blind, he became the very young. He began his schooling in his village Coupvray, he was admitted to the Royal Institute for the Blind at the time when experimenting Barbier's system. Active and intelligent, he immediately realized the benefit of coding issues and began to improve, which he did in
* Reducing from 12 to 6 the number of points used;
* Using the encoding of Latin typographic signs (letters, punctuation, musical notes, etc..) Rather than sons.
Louis has some difficulty in accepting its system, particularly given the opposition of Barbier, which considers it fundamental that a record sounds (sonography) as a shorthand. The fact that Louis Braille was so young (he was born in 1809) does not help its credibility, despite her own academic success and responsibility entrusted to it already. The Braille code only takes off only from 1829, already almost in its present form.
Braille characters are wider than their "black". This has resulted in a significant increase in the volume of a braille document over a "black" when the document is translated a Braille characters for a black character. Also, we created a contracted form: the Braille.
It was in 1880 that Maurice de la Sizeranne constitua Abstract French spelling, since that was supplemented by several partners.
In a text in Braille, there are three types of words:
* For words that one or more contractions,
* Words that have a symbol,
* Words written in full (standard Braille).
For example, the term "(re) (pr) és (en) ing (s)" the letters in parentheses are abbreviated by the acronym own.
In the case of symbols, words are represented as an isolated letter. So when the letter "e" is read without being incorporated into a word, it means "same".
A single character can be, depending on its context (used in a word, beginning, middle or end, before a vowel or a consonant or alone), have several different meanings.
Thus, the "i" can be read as is, but can also be:
* The symbol of the word "this" when used alone,
* Contraction letters "cl" in a word,
* The contraction of the syllable "is" verb ending in.
The words written in Braille (in Braille text abbreviated) are:
* Words with no symbol or no contraction which they comprise,
* Proper names (not abbreviated except in names of people)
* Names that use of a contraction would confusing, incomprehensible.
UMMARY voice, touch screen, character recognition
Technological advances are also felt in the field of speech synthesis. Until a few years ago, blind people were the only ones to understand the sentences imposed. Currently they are understood by all. Punctuation is felt while listening.
Screen readers are software that can transform a visual display of a page in Braille or spoken text are not portable unlike the TOP Braille which integrates a camera.
By moving the top-Braille along a text, the camera captures images, the processor recognizes the characters and instantly shows in Braille (and hear through a speaker by voice synthesis). TOP Braille guides the visually impaired user to follow each line of text.
The beaches are still touch-plate on which a band of small pimples rising or dropping in order to compose the letters. Thus a line of text on screen is reflected on the beach tactile Braille.
When a non-sighted person want to read the text present on the computer screen, she has two options for scrolling text on the beach touch: either to press a button once it has finished read each line for the rest of the text or the text scrolls to a certain pattern and it reads as. People who read Braille often use the combination of a range of Braille and voice synthesis to facilitate the return of information.
The recognition of characters from a document scanned and digitized has allowed many people to blind or to read that they had no access. They scan their documents and read them with the two means listed above.
The blind can now browse the Internet through the beaches and tactile speech synthesizers.
Read also Color Blindness