Yogurt is a preparation of milk cow, goat, sheep, horse, donkey, camel or buffalo, not drained and fermented.

The origin of the word comes from the Turkish yogurt, of yo─čurtmak (thickening).

The oldest written on yoghurts are attributed to Pliny the Elder, the latter has been noticed that some tribes "barbarians" knew "the milk thicken a matter of a pleasant acidity. We consider today that Bulgaria was until 1878 under Ottoman rule as the country inventor of yoghurt. However some believe that yogurt comes from a region of the Middle East today is Iran or Kurdistan. Traditional techniques still used in this area are to ferment milk by a tramway latter in a "bag" of sheepskin or goat. There is evidence of fermented milk products in order food for at least the third millennium BC. AD. The first result yogurt probably a spontaneous fermentation, perhaps through contact with wild bacteria living inside the bags of goatskin used for transporting milk.

Yogurt made his first appearance in France by Francis I who suffer from digestive problems, appealed to the Sultan of Turkey, Istanbul sends a doctor who heals by submitting to a cure sheep milk fermented.

At the end of the nineteenth century, the Russian bacteriologist Elie Metchnikoff, Nobel Prize in biology in 1908, questioned the link giving the longevity of yogurt mountain Caucasus and the Balkans. It discovers, in fact, the positive effects of yogurt on intestinal disorders of infants.

The yogurt in the world
The yogurt is sweet and eaten as a dessert in the West. Elsewhere, mainly in India (lassi), Turkey and Greece is a preparation cut with water they consume during meals or as a component of food.

In China, it has been introduced in the early 1990s by Danone and is now a luxury.

The manufacture of yoghurt is relatively simple. It can be done on a small scale at home or in industry.

Yogurt is made from milk (whole, semi-skimmed or skimmed), usually cow (but also sheep, goat, soy, etc.). It is pasteurized and often enriched with milk powder. Yogurt has a protein content and calcium higher than normal milk. Then, two bacteria are added to the fermentation:

* Streptococcus thermophilus (43 ° C)
* Lactobacillus bulgaricus

The dairy preparations made on the same principle but with other bacteria (bifidus ...) have no right to be called yogurt in France.

Yogurt can be brewed, flavored, sweetened, mixed with various fruits ...

Most yogurts are white with the exception of yogurt made by craftsmen in the village of Orban from buffalo milk: it has a natural color pink.

With more than 21 kilograms of yogurt per person in 2005, 170 pots each year, the French, which increased by 20% in ten years their consumption are the biggest consumers in Europe, behind the Germans. The National Nutrition Health Program launched in 2001 by the French government recommends consumption of three dairy products a day.

Nutritional value of a yoghurt
In addition to being appreciated for its taste and texture, yogurt has a remarkable nutritional value: a relatively low energy intake (on average 90 kcal for a jar of 125g plain yogurt classical), while the protein intake , Calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin and represents more than 25% of daily needs.

The benefits of yogurt on health
The presence of 100 to 1050 million live bacteria per milliliter of yogurt would be very interesting properties on human health. Numerous searches have not succeeded in showing those comments very carefully.

Yogurt is an element of the famous Cretan regime, supposedly very beneficial for health.

Digestibility of milk
About 75% of adults worldwide evil digest lactose, contained in large quantities in milk. In general, the indigestibilite lactose appears with age: the beta-galactosidase enzyme needed to digest lactose, becomes isofonctionnelle. This has the effect of abdominal pain, gas and / or diarrhea when consumption of milk.

Research has succeeded in showing that eating yogurt instead of milk, decreased production of hydrogen and reduce symptoms. This effect is associated with bacteria that live in the fermentation of yogurt, consume some lactose in the milk to turn it into glucose and galactose and produce lactic acid. The content of enzyme also helps the digestion of lactose in the intestines. Finally, the texture of yogurt and viscosity allow transit slower, leaving more time for enzymes for digestion.

However, lactose intolerance is variable depending on the individual. It can sometimes be at the point of not being able to digest rather than a yogurt.

In the case of milk protein allergy, a few articles reported induction of tolerance through the introduction of increasing doses of milk proteins in food. The amount of milk consumed is initially small, and increases gradually. This "healing" is only possible in children tolerant minimum dose of departure, and is not automatic. In addition, people allergic to milk proteins have acquired a tolerance must continue to consume milk products or tolerance disappears.

Healing diarrhea
Yogurt is a probiotic because it reduces the duration of certain types of diarrhea, especially in children. The World Health Organization recommends replacing the milk yogurt, as far as possible during the treatment of diarrhea because it is better tolerated than milk and can help prevent malnutrition or restore nutrition

Immunomodulating effects
It has been shown that yogurt improve various parameters of the immune system in mice. In humans, a study has demonstrated improved clinical symptoms of nasal allergy, [ref. necessary] but changing the parameters studied.

Yogurt does not in fact the immune system but can lead to higher rates in B lymphocytes and natural NK cells, thus promoting immune defense.

Decreasing the risk of cancer
A recent epidemiological study conducted in France showed that people consuming yogurt have a lower risk of developing colorectal adenomas important.

Read also Milk