Hippocrates Mr Medical
Hippocrates Mr Medical
Major Hippocrates Hippocrates of Cos or (in Greek: Ἱπποκράτης) (born around 460 BC. J.-C in the island of Cos - who died around 370 BC. J. Larissa-C) is a Greek physician of the century Péricles , Regarded as one of the major figures in the history of medicine.
It is often referred to as the father of medicine for his significant contributions in the discipline and the founding of the Hippocratic medical school. The school has revolutionized intellectually medicine in ancient Greece, in establishing this art as a discipline distinct from other disciplines of knowledge which it had traditionally been attached (including theurgy and philosophy), thereby making the medical profession a full-fledged.
However, the works of writers of the body, practitioners of the Hippocratic medicine and actions Hippocratic itself are often confused. We know very little about the life of Hippocrates, his thoughts and his writings. However, Hippocrates is commonly described as the paragon of doctor of antiquity. In particular, it is generally agreed he has done considerably advance the systematic study of the medical clinic in compiling the amount of medical knowledge of previous schools and establishing ethical standards for physicians through the Hippocratic oath and Other work.
According to most historians Hippocrates was born around the year 460 BC. J.-C on the Greek island of cos (Kos). He was a renowned doctor and a famous professor of medicine.
Other biographical details are apocryphal and questionable. Soranos of Ephesus, a Greek gynecologist of the second century was the first biographer of Hippocrates and his writings are the main source of information we have on his person. Further details have reached us through the writings of Aristotle, which date from the fourth century BC. J.-C., the Souda tenth century AD. J.-C and John Tzetzes books written in the 12th century AD. J.-C. According to Soranos, the Hippocratic father was a doctor, Heraclides, and his mother Praxitela, daughter of Phenaretis. Both son of Hippocrates, Thessalus and Draco, and his son-in-law, Polybus, were his students. According to Claude Galen, a Greek physician of more recent times, Polybus is the true successor of Hippocrates. Source of confusion, Draco and Thessalus had both a son named Hippocrates.
According Soranos, Hippocrates had learned medicine from his father and his grandfather and studied other fields of knowledge with Democritus and Gorgias. Hippocrates was probably formed by Asclépiades de Cos, a brotherhood of priests physicians venerating Asklepios, the Greek god of medicine and followed the teaching of Herodicus Thracian Selymbria a doctor. The mere mention contemporary Hippocratic figure in the dialogue Protagoras where Plato mentions Hippocrates as "Hippocrates of Cos, a member of Asclépiades". He died in Larissa probably at the age of 83 or 90 years, although some have claimed he had lived up to more than 100 years. There are different versions about the circumstances of his death.
Hippocrates is recognized as the first doctor to have rejected the superstitions and beliefs which attributed the cause of diseases to divine or supernatural forces. The followers of Pythagoras is credited to Hippocrates the merit of bringing together philosophy and medicine. He separated medicine as a discipline of religion and belief, arguing that the disease was not a punishment from the gods, but rather the result of environmental factors, diet and lifestyle. Indeed, there is no mention of a single disease mystique in the entire corpus Hippocratic. However, Hippocrates worked on the faith of many principles based on concepts that are now recognized as wrong in anatomy and physiology as the theory of moods.
The medical schools of ancient Greece (the school of Cnidus and that of Cos) were opposed on how to treat diseases. The School of Medicine Cnidus had mainly focused its practice on the diagnosis, but it depended on many erroneous assumptions about the functioning of the body: Greek medicine at the time of Hippocrates did not know practically everything about anatomy and the human physiology because of Greek taboo which banned dissection of the human body. The school of Cnidus, therefore, fails to identify a condition given as a single disease when it could be manifested by different types of symptoms.
The Hippocratic school of Cos has outperformed merely diagnoses generals and symptomatic treatment or palliative, according to the points of view. The emphasis was on patient care and prognosis of the disease rather than its diagnosis. She managed to effectively treat diseases and this has led to a major development of clinical practice.
The Hippocratic medicine and its philosophy are very remote guidance of modern medicine. Today the doctor focuses on a precise diagnosis and treatment specially adapted accordingly, two principles that had already been advocated by the school of Cnidus. These changes in medical thinking since the time of Hippocrates have criticized relevant during the last two millennia, the palliative treatment Hippocratic being particularly virulent controversy. For example in 1869 a doctor french, MS Houdart, described the therapeutic method of Hippocrates' meditation on death"
The moods and crises
The school Hippocratic professed that diseases were the result of an imbalance inside the body between the four humors, fluids that are naturally in equal proportions when the state of health is good (pepsis). According to this school of thought, when the four humors (blood, lymph, bile and atrabile) are not in a state of equilibrium (dyscrasia which means "bad mixture") a person becomes ill and the rest until 'that the balance has been somewhat restored. The therapeutic method Hippocratic aimed to restore that balance. For example, using the lemon we thought it was beneficial when the phlegm (lymph) was sake.
Another important concept in medicine Hippocratic was that crisis, a precise moment in the progression of the disease where anything can switch: either the disease begins to prevail, and the patient will succumb either to reverse the natural process of healing to implement and allow the patient to recover. After a crisis, a relapse can occur, followed by another crisis decisively. According to this doctrine, crises tend to occur during critical days that were supposed to return to a fixed date after the onset of illness. If a crisis occurs during a day away from a critical day, a relapse is to be feared. Galen believes that this idea originated with Hippocratic, but it may be earlier.
The therapeutic Hippocratic
The Hippocratic medicine was humble and palliative. The therapeutic approach was based on the healing power of nature (vis medicatrix naturae in latin). According to this doctrine, the body contains in itself the power to rebalance the four humors and heal itself (physis). The therapeutic Hippocratic gave himself simply intended to assist this natural process. To this end, Hippocrates believed that the "rest and immobilization" were of paramount importance. Typically, the Hippocratic medicine was very respectful of the patient, the treatment was mild, and was intended mainly to keep the patient clean to prevent infection. For example, only clean water or wine were used on wounds, although a dry treatment is preferable. The soothing balms were sometimes used.
Hippocrates was reluctant to administer drugs and engage in a specific treatment that may be poorly chosen. His motto was "above all, do no harm" (primum non nocere, latin). A diagnosis was uncertain followed by a multi-purpose treatment. Powerful drugs have been used on some occasions. This approach wait was a great success in treating relatively simple ailments such as fractures that required to cause a tensile elongation of the member broken and relieve the pressure on the fracture zone. The bench Hippocrates and other devices have been used for this purpose.
One of the strengths of the Hippocratic medicine was the emphasis on prognosis. At the time of Hippocrates, the drug treatments were still primitive, and often the best thing that doctors could do was to assess the severity of the disease and to assess how it might evolve on the basis of Data collected by the detailed observation of similar cases.
A forerunner of dietetics
Hippocrates discovered dietetics advocating the use of vegetables and fruits.
At that time the diet is based on four simple ideas:
* Digestion is a cooking.
* It is better to eat foods cooked in order to facilitate digestion.
* The body is composed of elements that determine a temperament.
* It is recommended to eat a balanced food, ie food corresponding to his temperament.
In the Hippocratic diet, it lists four elements: Water, Earth, Air, Fire, which correspond to four temperaments: lymphatic melancholy, blood and angry. Each food is classified as hot, cold, dry or wet.
The Hippocratic medicine was distinguished by its strict professionalism, discipline and rigor of its practice. The book Hippocratic On the doctor recommends doctors to always be rigorous, honest, peaceful, comprehensive and serious. The physician Hippocrates has paid special attention to all aspects of his practice: he gave detailed requirements for lighting, staff who attended the practitioner, the positioning of instruments and patient, techniques and bandage in contention operating rooms. It looked even keep the nails of a suitable length.
The school Hippocratic gave great importance to the doctrines clinical observation and documentation. These doctrines teach doctors how to record their findings and their drug prescriptions in a very clear and objective so that these documents can be transmitted to other doctors and used by them. Hippocrates s'astreint carefully noted regularly many symptoms such as skin, pulse, fever, pain, the patient's motor skills and appearance of urine and feces. It said it would have taken the pulse of a patient while he asked about the history of his illness (history) to determine whether the patient had lied. Hippocrates has extended its clinical observations in the history of the family and the environment. For him medicine is the art of observation and clinical examination. For this reason it can legitimately be regarded as the Father of clinical medicine. He attributes the merit of having described the symptoms of human influenza and its students are the first to make diagnoses, if accurate, less relevant.
Direct contributions to medicine
Hippocrates and his disciples were the first to describe many diseases and medical conditions. He attributes the paternity of the first description of the Hippocratisme digital, an important sign for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and congenital heart cyanogenic. For this reason, a symptom of fingers to stick drum is sometimes called digital Hippocratisme. Hippocrates was also the first physician to describe in the face Hippocratic Tippen, the change occurs in the face at the time of death, or during a long illness. Shakespeare alluded to this description in relation to the death of Falstaff in Henry V Act II, Scene III.
Hippocrates began to classify diseases in acute, chronic, endemic and epidemic, and use terms such as "exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis peak, peak and convalescence". Another major contributions Hippocratic can be found in his descriptions of symptoms, physical signs, surgical treatment and prognosis of empyema (Pleurésie purulent) chest, ie the suppuration of the pleural lining in the chest cavity. His teachings are still relevant today for students and chest surgery. Hippocrates was the first listed thoracic surgeon and its conclusions are still valid.
The Hippocratic Corpus (latin: Corpus hippocraticum) is a compilation of nearly seventy treaties medicine in ancient Greece, written in Ionic (dialect ion). Whether Hippocrates himself was the author of the corpus has not been resolved permanently. But these books were probably written by his students and his disciples. Because of the variety of themes, styles of writing and the date apparent drafting researchers believe that the Hippocratic Corpus could not have been written by one person (Ermerins assesses the number of sponsors to nineteen). During ancient times the body was attributed to Hippocrates and his teaching has generally followed his principles, so it is designated by its name. It could be the remains of a library of Kos or a collection of manuscripts compiled the third century av.J.-C in Alexandria.
The Hippocratic Corpus includes books, conferences, research, notes and philosophical essays on various topics related to medicine, meeting no particular order. These books have been written for different audiences, for both professionals and laymen, have sometimes been designed from opposing points of view, which explains that significant contradictions can be found between different parts of the body. Among the major works of Corpus include the Hippocratic oath, the Book of predictions, the Plan in acute illnesses, Aphorisms, in the air, water and on land, instruments reduction on the sacred disease, etc.
Hippocrates is widely regarded as the "Father of Medicine". His contributions have revolutionized the practice of medicine, but after his death, the progress of discipline have languished. Hippocrates was so revered that his teachings were considered too perfect to be improved and that no significant progress in the medical field has been made for a long time, both the doctrine forbade any questioning. The centuries that followed the death of Hippocrates were more often marked by setbacks as further progress. For example, after the time of Hippocrates, the practice of writing the history of clinical cases has gone according to Fielding Garrison.
After Hippocrates, the doctor was more remarkable Galen, a Greek who lived from 129 to 200 AD. J.-C. and perpétua medicine Hippocratique with both input and setbacks. In the Middle Ages, the Arabs have adopted the methods of Hippocrates and translated his texts. After the Renaissance and under the influence of Arab, methods of Hippocrates have been rediscovered in Europe and even developed in the nineteenth century. Note among those who practiced the methods rigorous clinical Hippocratic the following: Sydenham, Heberden, Charcot and Osler. A doctor french Henri Huchard, said that these returns to the sources scattered "throughout the history of internal medicine".